Perennial Grasses

Reed Canary Grass

Red Top
Kentucky Bluegrass

Reclamation Specialty/Conservation


Well known grass doing best on bottom lands, rich moist loams and clay soil, but not loose, sandy ground. Makes a good pasture when sown with hulled orchardgrass and Ladino clover. A perennial, semi-bunch growth habit used primarily for hay.

Timothy Seeding

30 days prior to the average date of the last killing frosts. Sow in September, Harvest in June.
Rate: (Alone) 6-8lbs. per acre, (In Mixes) 1-2lbs. per acre
Fertilization: 40-60lbs. N; 30-40lbs. P; 30-60lbs K
pH level: 5.8-6.2
  • Clair Timothy (Earlier)
    A vigorous, early maturing variety that matures 1-2 weeks earlier than other varieties, or about the same time as red clover or alfalfa are ready for first cutting. Good second year production. Also superior in first year production and aftermath yield.
  • Climax Timothy (Later)
    Leafy, high-yielding, rust resistant variety. Heads out about 7-10 day later than common Timothy. Best when used with legumes.

A vigorous perennial grass known for its longevity. Planted extensively by cattlemen because of its good grazing from spring until fall, demanding very little. Can be used for pasture, hay or silage. When cutting for hay, orchardgrass should be cut in the bloom stage. Does best on well-drained loam soil.

Orchardgrass Seeding

Early fall or spring. Harvest in May or June
Rate: (Alone) 14-21lbs. per acre, (In Mixes) 8-14lbs. per acre
Fertilization: 40-60lbs. N; 30-40lbs. P; 30-60lbs K
pH level: 5.8-6.2
  • Orchardgrass 90/85 (Early)
    Early maturing bunch grass with good early growth. Grows very well in spring. Good recovery after cutting hay or grazing. For pasture or hay.
  • Pennlate Orchardgrass (Later)
    Late heading, high yielding. Recommended use with legumes with adaptive maturities. Somewhat winter hardy. A good late orchardgrass.
  • Potomac (Cert) Orchardgrass (Early)
    An improved early maturing variety. More resistant to leaf diseases than common Orchard. Very productive and persistent; recommended with clover.
  • Hulled Orchardgrass
    Super quality, finely cleaned; outer seed coat removed. Faster germinating, lower seed rate (1/2 as much as regular seed). Works ideally with other grasses and legumes. When seeding with Alfalfa, the rate per acre should not exceed 1 1/2lbs. Provides more consistent seeding through drill box.
  Reed Canary Grass

Description: Tall, coarse, sod-forming cool-season grass; grows 2-5' tall; spreads underground by short, scaly rhizomes; semi-dense, spike-like panicle. Use for hay, pasture, and silage.
Weight per bushel: 45lbs.

Seeds per pound: 430,000

Germinating time: 21 days

Fertilizer: Establishment - 50lbs. N, 120-140lbs. P
205 and 120-140lbs. K20
                Maintenance (pasture) - 40-60lbs. N, 30-40lbs. P
205 and 30-60lbs. K20
                Maintenance (hay) - 120-200lbs. N apploied 1/2 in early spring and the
                other 1/2 after 1st cutting plus 40-90lbs. P
205 and 85-185lbs. K20
                When seeded with clover - nitrogen rate should be reduced to 20lbs.
                For maintenance where there is more than 35% clover, no nitrogen is

pH Range: 5.8-6.2

Soil Adaptation: Tolerates poorly drained soils. More drought tolerant than many other cool-season plants.

Planting: Early fall or spring. Often slow to establish. Plant 12-14lbs. alone; 6-8lbs. in mixtures. Plant in 6-8" rows or solid seeded.

Harvesting: 1st cut when heads begin to emerge.

Approximate harvest dates: Hay, May 15 to June 15

Approximate yield: Hay, 2-4 tons per acre.
  • Palaton (Forage) Canary Grass
    Vigorous, high yielding, nutritious, newly developed variety. Excellent feeder for livestock that withstands both wet and drought conditions. Low alkaloid content for better digestion. Winter hardy, leaf disease resistant. Provides outstanding pasturing when combined with legumes. Multiple cuttings; excellent with alfalfa.
  • Venture Reed Canary Grass
    Another improved variety much like Palaton, Low alkaloids levels.

Description: Long lived, tufted, deep-rooted; noted for early spring and late fall growth; dark green leaves, shiny, barbed along the edge; leaves rolled in bud, very short ligule, sheath reddish pink below ground. Most existing tall fescue stands are infected with a fungal endophyte that induces fescue toxicosis in cattle.

Varieties: Endophyte-free varieties are somewhat less hardy than endophyte-infected tall fescue, requiring more careful management. Modern endophyte-free varieties are stronger than earlier varieties. Endophte-enhanced varieties have postential.
Uses: Pasture, hay and turf. Excellent when seeded at high rates for turf. Widely used for winter grazing.

Weight per bushel:

Seeds per pound: 220,000

Germinating time: 14 days

Fertilizer: Establishment - 40lbs. N, 120-140lbs. P
205 and 120-140lbs. K20 at
                medium soil test levels
                Pasture topdressing - 30lbs. P205 and 30-60lbs. K20 annually or
                40-125lbs. P205 and K20 every 3-4 years. For winter grazing, apply
                60-75lbs. N in mid-August.
                Hay topdressing - 120-200lbs. N, 40-90lbs. P205 and 85-185lbs. K20

pH Range: 5.6-6.2

Soil Adaptation: Adapted to practically all tillable soils. Tolerant to both dry and wet soils.

Planting: Early fall or spring at 15-25lbs. when seeded alone, and 6-12lbs. in mix for pasture; 4-6lbs. per 1000 square feet for turf.

Harvesting (hay): 1st cut when heads begin to emerge. Stems and seedheads of endophyte-infected fescue are highly toxic. Approximate yield: 2-6 tons of hay per acre.

Harvesting (seed): When field takes on yellowish brown cast and heads droop.

Harvesting (pasture): Tolerant of continuous stocking. With rotational stocking, turn in at 8", remove cattle at 2-3". Keep vegetative to reduce potential problems with endophyte. Remove pregnant mares from endophyte-infected fescue during last 3 monts of gestation!
  • Teton Tall Fescue Forage
    Many quality problems of tall fescue are associated with the presence of an endophytic fungus growing in the plants. New varieties of tall fescue which contain no endophyte fungus are available and should be used when establishing new or renovating old pastures. Exclusive grazing of old fescue varieties during the summer occasionally leads to a condition known as "fescue syndrome", in which cattle retain their winter coat, breathe rapidly, and gain poorly. Using low-endophyte tall fescue varieties eliminates this risk.

Description: Sod-forming since it spreads by underground rhizomes; leafy and grows to height of 3-4'; head is an open panicle; stem smooth and round; fused leaf sheath.

Uses: Hay and pasture-drought tolerant.

Weight per bushel:

Seeds per pound: 137,000

Germinating time: 14 days

Fertilizer: 100-200lbs. N. Lower levels required when used as pasture in split applications, 40-90lbs. P205, and 85-185lbs. K20 annually on soils testing medium.

pH Range: 5.8-6.7

Soil Adaptation: Well drained, vertile soils.

Planting: Early spring, or with small grain in fall, seeded at 10lbs. in mixture. Do not seed alone!

Harvesting: Early bloom stage. Do not graze or cut during stem elongation.

Ryegrass Seeding

When soil becomes appropriately warm. 1-2 weeks after corn.
Rate: 10-12lbs. in rows
pH level: 5.8-6.2

A perennial grass, less winter hardy and less palatable than other forage grasses. Survival is better when planted with alfalfa. 10lbs. in mixtures.
  • Amazon Tetraploid Ryegrass
    Highly palatable bunch grass. Heads out earlier than others. High yielder, good forage ryegrass. Tetraploid ryegrasses are considered to be much more digestible and palatable than tall fescue, bromegrass and Timothy, with higher protein content.
  Red Top / Herbs Grass (Perennial) Agrostis Albi

Produces numerous stems from a well-developed base. Spreads by rhizomes but does not produce a strong sod; flat, light green, sharp-pointed leaves; lacks leafiness under close grazing; long prominent ligule.

Uses: Primarily for erosion control and soil stabilization.

Weight per bushel:

Seeds per pound: 5,100,000

Germinating time: 10 days

Fertilizer: 40-60lbs. N, 60-100lbs. P205 and 60-100lbs. K20. The N is for annual application, the P205 and K20 are rates for 3-4 years.

pH Range: 5.8-6.2

Soil Adaptation: Well drained and moderately well drained loams and silt loams. Tolerant to wet conditions.

Planting: August to September. May be seeded in spring. Plant 3-5lbs. alone; 3lbs. in mix. Plant in 6-8" rows or solid seeded.

Harvesting (hay): Shortly before full bloom.
  Kentucky Bluegrass

Description: One of the earliest grasses in spring, yielding valuable pasture if planted on limestone or stiff soil. Low growing, solid forming perennial. Will withstand closer grazing. Since it requires a year or two to become firmly established, it is best to sow bluegrass with orchardgrass, ryegrass and alfalfa.

Planting: Sow 10-15lbs. per acre or 5-8lbs. in mixes.
  Reclamation Specialty/Conservation

Description: Native / Warm Season. These species are basically known for their warm season growth habit, but are becoming more and more adaptive to moderate and transitional climates. Grows best from July to September.
  • Switchgrass
    A tall perennial bunch grass 3' - 5', with sod forming capabilityies. Tolerates poorly drained soils. Primary growth is in mid-season and can be used to compliment as cool season forage program. Does well as a summer pasture or hay. Persists close and frequent grazing. Native wildlife stands. Seed at a rate of 6-8lbs. per acre. Varieties include Cave-In-Rock, Blackwell, and Trailblazer.
  • Big Bluestem
    A tall bunch grass, 4' - 6' tall, that is tolerant to excessively drained soil with poor water holding capacity. Characteristics much like Switchgrass in that it is ideal for summer pasturing and complementary to cool season programs. Wide soil adaptation. Very palatable with high protein value. Provides choice wildlife cover. Plant 25lbs. per acre. Variety: Niagra
  • Buffalograss
    Perennial sod forming grass that grows to height of 5" or less. Well suited for erosion control because of its strong root system. Native warm season grass with drought resistance. Highly nutritious and palatable for live stock. Use for lawns, roadsides, pastures and low maintenance areas. For pastures, seed at a rate of 15-25lbs. per acre.
    Non-Stocked Item.
  • Tioga Deer Tongue
    Perennial warm season grass with wide range of soil and fertility adaptations. Excellent for turkey and wild game. Birds eat the seed; deer eat the seed and graze on the foliate. Plant 10-15lbs. per acre.
  • Smartweed
    Best duck feeding available. Suggest hulled or scarified seed for good germination. Grow n marshy areas up to 18" high. Plant 20lbs. per acre.
    Non Stocked Item.
  • Lathco Flatpea
    Industrial waste areas, roadsides, mine reclamation, any utility situation. Will persist on steep banks and slopes. Good cover for all deer and small game. Seed for pigeons, doves, quail and pheasant. Plant 25-30lbs. per acre.
  • Weeping Lovegrass
    Perennial bunch grass that generally grows to a height of 2' - 5' but usually does not remain upright. Limited hay and pasture use, relatively low in palatability. Excellent soil stabilizer. Can be used for livestock forage but not recommended for wildlife. Heat and drought tolerant. Good for reclamation due to its ability to grow well in sandy and waste areas. Plant 3-6lbs. per acre.

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